The House of Hanover – Georgian and Victorian Britain
|George, Elector of Hanover, was born in Saxony in 1660 and became King of Great Britain and Ireland at the age of 54 on the death of Queen Anne.
Although Anne had many closer relatives, the 1701 Act of Settlement prevented Catholics from inheriting the throne and George was Anne’s closest Protestant relation.
The Jacobites were opposed to him becoming King and so tried to depose him and replace him with James Francis Edward Stuart, Anne’s half-brother who was Catholic, but they failed.
George I’s reign is known for being the beginning of a shift in power from the monarchy to the present day system of a cabinet government led by a prime minister.
|George II is known for being the last British monarch to have been born outside of the UK. He was born in Hanover, Germany in 1683 and was the only son of King George I and his wife Sofia of Celle.
His titles included King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
George II was known for:-
|George III was born in London in 1738 and was the grandson of his predecessor George II and son of Frederick Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. He became heir apparent on the death of his father from a lung injury in 1751.
He reigned Britain from 25th October 1760 until his death on 29th January 1820 and his reign was known for:-
|George IV ruled Britain as Prince Regent from 1811, due to his father’s mental illness, until his accession as King in 1820 on his father’s death. He ruled as King for only 10 years because he died in June 1830.
He became a large man, having a waist of 50 inches in 1824 and was known for his heavy drinking and love of food.
George IV’s reign is known for:-
|William IV inherited the throne from his brother George IV because George’s only child, Princess Charlotte had died in 1817 after giving birth to a still-born son. William was 64 years old when he became King and ruled for just under 7 years.
William IV was the last King of the House of Hanover and was known as the “Sailor King” because he had served in the Royal Navy.
His reign is known for:-
When he died in 1837 he had no surviving children so the throne passed to his niece Victoria. His brother Ernest Augustus succeeded him in Hanover.
William IV is famous for co-habiting with actress Dorothea Jordan for 20 years and having 10 illegitimate children.
|Victoria was the last monarch of the House of Hanover and is known for being the longest reigning British monarch and the longest reigning female monarch in history.
She came to the throne at the age of 18 on the death of her uncle, William IV, but salic law prevented her ruling Hanover and so it passed to her uncle who became King Ernest Augustus I.
Her reign is known for:-
Queen Victoria died in January 1901 and was succeeded by her son Edward VII who became the first monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Prince Albert’s royal house) which later had its name changed to the House of Windsor in the reign of Victoria’s grandson George V.