Happy St Anne’s Day!

Today, 26th July, is the feast day of St Anne, mother of the Virgin Mary and grandmother of Jesus Christ. Happy St Anne’s Day to any Annes or Annas out there! Have a wonderful day!

St Anne was very important to Queen Anne Boleyn, second wife of King Henry VIII and mother of Queen Elizabeth I, and a pageant at her coronation procession in 1533 took St Anne, combined with Anne Boleyn’s falcon badge, as its theme.

Find out more about the pageant at Anne Boleyn’s coronation, and why St Anne was chosen as the theme, in this “on this day” video.

You can read Nasim’s article on Anne Boleyn’s coronation procession here

Also on this day in Tudor history, 26th July 1588, 4,000 men assembled at Tilbury Fort in an effort to prevent the Spanish Armada from travelling up the Thames and attacking London. Find out what had led up to this day in last year’s video:

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17 thoughts on “Happy St Anne’s Day!”
  1. I was wondering if Anne was born on the feast of Saint Anne, but if her Aunt and Godmother Lady Anne Boleyn was the person she was named for, we are still left without any clue to the birthday of Queen Anne Boleyn. As her coronation was celebrated with such joy and hope for the future, so it was ironic that within three years her life was ended on the scaffold on false charges and her daughter, not the sacred Mother of a Redeemer but declared a Bastard. Henry’s embarrassment had been taken out on the woman he had declared he loved and had turned England upside down to possess. Yet, Elizabeth, the daughter of Anne Boleyn would go on to rule for 44 hard but reasonably successful years and become one of our greatest monarchs. Not too shabby.

  2. Amy Licence notes that there were several Anne’s in the Boleyn family, Lady Anne Hoo who married her ancestor Geoffrey Boleyn, and of course her aunt who married Sir John Sheldon, further back she was descended from Anne de Welles Countess of Ormond so it could just be that Anne was a popular family name, of course there is a strong possibility she could have been named after her aunt if she was her godmother to, and it is a pity we have no record of her birth either, she could well have been born on St Anne’s day, if there was a source that tells us we would then know her birthday, July 26th, her early years are so obscure so we can only conjecture as to whom she was named after and when was her date of birth, but people simply did not bother to record their children’s birthdays, it was only Thomas Cromwell who made it legal in 1538 to record all births and deaths, her coronation celebrating the life of St Anne was lavish and the red and white roses, those repressing the houses of Lancaster and York, bursting into bloom from the dead Tudor tree stump symbolised the life she would bring to the Tudor dynasty, alas it was not to be, she had two miscarriages that we know of but one was shrouded in secrecy, and she produced in Henry V111’s eyes at least a useless girl, such hope for the future and Anne herself must have believed that she would be the ancestor of a race of kings that would span a thousand years, a great and glorious dynasty to rival even that of the Plantagenet’s, but she did leave another legacy, her daughter who became Queen Elizabeth 1st against all odds and who is widely known as one our greatest monarchs, Elizabeth did not have a son who would rule after her so Henry V111’s and Anne’s hopes for an enduring dynasty withered and died, but their daughter enjoyed a long and mostly successful reign and it is regarded today as the ‘Golden Age’.

  3. The Spanish Armada was King Philips dream of conquering England, that troublesome little island whose pirates had for years been plaguing his shores, her queen was a heretic and a bastard and she had executed the true queen, the catholic Mary Queen of Scots, Philip was determined to teach England and her pesky pirates and his one time sister in law a lesson, he possibly recalled a tall slender dark eyed girl from years ago when he had been married to her sister, he had even made a bid for her hand after Mary’s death, some historians have pondered if Philip had actually been attracted to Elizabeth, she must have appeared so fresh and young beside that of her wizened sister, but for now England’s was on a war footing with Spain that great imperial power and fear stalked the land, I too love the tale of Sir Francis Drake insisting he would finish his game of bowls before sailing of to meet the enemy, one can imagine the scene on the sandy beach with the beacons in the distance all lit along the coat, it probably is just a myth but like myths it endures, the defeat of the Armada was although down to some fierce fighting and plenty of gunpowder, was partly caused by the weather, that bane of the natives life, the storms made the bulky galleons capsize and many lie now in the bottom of the channel their glory days when they were the pride of their fleet over, the remaining vessels limped back to Spain to the great grief of their king, who had made special prayers on the eve of their departure for triumph and victory, God it appeared did not hear him but was firmly on the side of the heretic English, Elizabeth had a coin struck with the words ‘god blew and they were scattered’, it was a great victory for Elizabeth which added to her image as the powerful all omnipotent and virginal queen, a great painting was commissioned which hangs today in the National Gallery in London, the queen is resplendent in white and gold she wears her favourite pearls and she stands over the map of the world, known as the ‘Armada Portrait’, it symbolises the fight against tyranny and is really an image of national pride that has endured for centuries, in its day it symbolised the victory over the evils of the inquisition, Spain never threatened England again and Elizabeth could sleep safe in her bed safe in the belief that God was on her side.

    1. Elizabeth probably rightly played up the defeat of the Amarda because of course everything was at stake, the freedom of England and her people, her reign and life, the way of life and the religious life of her subjects. England was pretty much paranoid about Spain, even if they had warmed to the person of Queen Katherine of Aragon and her Spanish servants and even to a number of those who came with Prince Philip in 1554. The English are pretty much paranoid about foreigners now as well, but again and again one sees riots aimed at the Flemish or Germans or Spanish given trading rights and leave to live and have shops in London during the sixteenth century. This was a trait that had existed since the twelfth century and it was annoying to the authorities because these markets were essential for trade and good foreign relations. Foreigners had certain tax breaks but they paid other dues which allowed for much open investment across the continent not possible without this movement of traders between friendly nations. In return our merchants received favoured treatment in Spain and in the Netherlands and the protection of the King or Emperor against import duties and certain taxation. These were the countries our thriving wool trade blossomed with for centuries. Some of our merchants had real privileges during the reign of Henry Viii up to the reign of Elizabeth I. They even survived periods of tension, with Charles V being encouraged not to react against Henry Viii during his divorce from Katherine by taxing or blockading English ships. Mary of Hungry was also persuaded not to act against the customs of trade between the Netherlands and the privileged merchants because it could be a disaster. Henry Viii tried to force her goods into English ships if they were to escape taxation but ultimately gave up. Few such protection applied to native merchants, except for certain trades, like wool and wine, which galvanised local guilds into action occasionally. The Evil May Day Riots of 1517 were against foreigners, the anti Spanish riots in 1554 were as much about trade as Mary marrying Philip and under Elizabeth several riots took place over her unpopular policy of monopolies. During the Great Fire of London in 1665 people stopped to attack Flemish traders who were trying to escape with their goods, having lived happily next to them for years. The piracy of the English privateers and the attacks on Spanish caravans in South America and the Indies over a number of years, most certainly contributed to the antagonism which led to the invasion of the Spanish Amarda.

      It’s very doubtful, just in my opinion, that Philip actually fancied Princess Elizabeth. Yes, she was attractive at 25,_but his ambition to remain in control of England was just that, he didn’t want to let go of his new procession, which he lost automatically on the death of Queen Mary. The extremely detailed marriage contract between Hapsburg Spain and Tudor England, between Mary I and the then, Prince, soon to be King Phillip had many safeguards for English independent autonomy and the protection of England as such if Mary died first. One of those safeguards was to limit, but not fully exclude, the role that Philip played as King of England. Another emphasised Mary’s royal authority and autonomy. However, England wasn’t to become a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Philip was to relinquish his interest in his adopted country after Mary died and have no say in the succession. As there was a possibility, although maybe a remote one if Mary legally made someone else her heir, as Elizabeth was still illegitimate and Protestant, that Elizabeth would succeed when Philip thought about maintaining control, she was his only means to do so. Once Mary named her, shortly before her death as heir, Elizabeth became an attractive marriage prospect. She wasn’t always going to be as Philip had two more wives afterwards, but in 1555/9 and early 1560s she was one. As Queen Elizabeth was even more valuable. She was also as Mary had once been during her twenties, an attractive woman. Like her family, Elizabeth also had many gifts and was well educated. She carried on a remarkable correspondence in Italian or French with a number of leaders as well as King Phillip. She was a shrewd political operator. So as well as being a fellow monarch with a reasonable amount of wealth, connections abroad and the usual attractions of alliances, Elizabeth had several personal attributes which made her an attractive mate. However, she was a frustrating woman to deal with. She never gave anyone a straight answer. Elizabeth was also a dissembling and deceptive person who played one nation off against the other. She was also politically dangerous and religiously uncertain as a potential partner. She had numerous courtiers calling on her for her hand and came close twice to actually marrying but the concerns of her Council as well as a real fear of upsetting Spain, held her back. Elizabeth had personal concerns over the loss of power if she married. Her own life experience may also have played a part. Then there was the tipping point.

      Elizabeth had as her prisoner for 18 years, the main rival for her crown, her cousin, Mary, Queen of Scotland. As a Catholic Mary attracted aid from Spain and France in the form of promised but not actually support for her claim to the throne. As time passed and Elizabeth was looking unlikely to marry, growing older and therefore infertile, Mary drew more and more support and plots formed around her, partly funded by Spain. Eventually, Elizabeth and her advisers, William Cecil and Francis Walsingham had had enough and Mary was tried in 1586 and executed in February 1587. This was the catalyst for invasion. Attacks by Drake and others, the burning of his fleet, various private and public insults, then the death of a Catholic Monarch by a Queen regarded as a heretic and illegitimate, excommunicated by the Pope gave Philip the excuse to invade England. By now he was no longer the young and attractive and Renaissance Prince, but he was more the zealous older man of legendary status. His ambitions across the New World and the struggle with England and her interference in the rebellion in the Netherlands all added to his conviction that Elizabeth had to go. He was also carrying out the sentence of Excommunication by removing a heretic from the throne of England. The execution of Mary Queen of Scots made invasion inevitable.

      The Spanish fleet was huge, the fleet well provisioned, the plan was to pick up an army in the Netherlands and take England. England was also prepared, her fleet was more or less the same size, her guns made the difference because they were designed for a battle at sea. The Spanish had huge land guns. However, the Spanish were in a tighter crescent formation and difficult to pick off. It was days before there was any engagement. A combination of small encounters, the weather, a fatal decision to anchor the fleet at Calais, hesitation and fireships as well as one decisive battle, plus more bad weather defeated the Amarda. However, it wasn’t that easy. The English fleet ran out of ammunition, the army wasn’t as well provisioned and couldn’t have defeated a land invasion. The Spanish made fatal errors. A change of plan was proposed by one commander to forget about the Duke of Parma and invade straight away when an opportunity arose. It sounds as if he noticed a weakness and could have exploited it. A surprise invasion would have worked according to Dan Snow. However, the orders from King Phillip were specific and this commander was overruled. That gave Drake time to repair his ship and Howard to rearm the fleet and the army to gather. The final battle was taking place when Elizabeth made her famous appearance before the army at Tilbury and the worst was passed. A combination of this victory and the winds and storms around Ireland and Scotland and the North Coast saw less than 50 Spanish ships return home. A chastened and religious King Phillip thought God had rejected his crusade, Elizabeth thought it was God and His wind. In reality it was actually luck as much as anything.

      The magnificent portrait of Elizabeth with her hands upon the globe, the Spanish ships in the background and the wonderful dress she is wearing is a truly beautiful piece of Tudor propaganda and one which placed her into the imagination of the national mind which celebrated. However, as with all wars, there was a price to pay and England could not afford it. While Elizabeth gathered treasures from the New World as her boundaries began to expand to the American colonies and to the Indies, those sailors who had fought for her victory died in hospitals and on board ships of poverty, disease and starvation. England lost more men in failed counter invasions in the following ten years. Spain never gave up and more attempts followed. The English Amarda of 1589 was a complete disaster. It wasn’t until the reign of James I that a treaty was finally signed ending decades of Anglo Spanish wars which in truth neither country really benefited any tangible gains from.

  4. Hi BQ & Christine. I finished watching the series ‘Royal Heritage’. Excellent. I’m so glad you mentioned it. Thank you.

    1. You are welcome, Michael. Did you know that Mary was crowned with a set of three crowns, a triple crown and her coronation had elements of male and female Kingship because nobody knew what a female King meant and all kinds of innovations were brought into give her some kind of balance of both? For example for decorum, not because it was the job of a King, although it could be interpreted this way, Mary asked the Earl of Arundel to make the Knights of the Bath and represent her, because it involved getting into the bath with them to anoint them. Yet, she was herself presented with the trappings of a Knight by being girded with a sword and having spurs placed on her feet. She received two swords of state and two orbs of justice and state. She was anointed the same way as any Monarch but her robing was uniquely female as were many other parts of the ceremony. Parts of the oath had been rewritten to take account of the changes made by Edward vi and her father, but with innovations introduced by Henry Vii. The legislation to allow the reintroduction of Mass formally had not yet been passed as no English King can enter Parliament uncrowned, but many innovations were seen to give the service a unique flavour.

      Our modern imperial state crown is an amazing piece of jewellery really with all of those diamonds and sapphires and rubies and normally the crown is a golden case which is remade for each monarch. The Tudor and Medieval crowns were open crowns, much lighter than the modern ones and yet they still glittered with previous gems. Very few actually exist any more, most places have seen their monarchies torn down by revolutions and crown jewels sold or dismantled. A few do survive. The legendary crown of Charlemagne, which was actually made for one of his later successors, Otto the Great in the tenth century, has somehow survived being hunted by the Nazis who thought it was magic. The tiny golden crown of Margaret of York the wife of Charles of Burgundy, made in the shape of a cross survived in Aachen from the fifteenth century and we have a very beautiful imperial crown, full of gems in Austria belonging to Anne of Bohemia, the wife of King Richard ii. A few Medieval crowns have survived in France and maybe one or two others but most now exist from the eighteenth century onwards. It was also traditional to place a crown on the coffin of a King or Queen before their funeral, which was why a funeral crown was made for King Richard iii in 2015 based on the open crowns of his time. The crown is now on display in Leicester Cathedral. Our crown jewels were dismantled and sold by Oliver Cromwell and new ones made in the reign of Charles II. Of course he could not destroy the large collection of paintings collected by Charles I because his Government needed the cash. So the Art was sold abroad and only recently was it tracked down and brought together last year for one exhibition in London. Charles went to Madrid as a young man to court the Infanta Maria and travelled to Italy and saw the Art of the Renaissance. He made the acquisition of Italian and French Art his lifetime project as well as encouraging artists to come to his elaborate Court. He didn’t marry the Spanish Infanta of course, the marriage fell through but he married Henrietta Maria, the daughter of Maria de Medici and herself familiar with Renaissance Art. Not that we didn’t have Renaissance Art before, Henry Vii and Viii had Italians at their Court as well as German and Flemish Art and here the Royal Collection had begun. It was Charles I, however, who really went to town and transported the Italian styles of Classical Art into the artistic style of his own Courts, celebrating the Ancient World and classical heroism in the representation of his own family. Charles also introduced a new style of painting, the ordinary family portraits. Henrietta Maria is depicted for example with a nursing baby in her arms, she and the King are relaxed and informal, the children are shown playing and even Prince Charles stands leaning on his mother’s knee. Princess Mary is pulling at her dress. There is a large dog from what I can recall and I think James is petting it. The children are still wearing formal clothes but James isn’t yet breached and wears a girls dress as was the custom of the day. It’s one of the first true family portraits made. It’s the first depiction of an English, possibly European Queen with a baby in her arms. If I have the order right, the baby would be Princess Elizabeth, who said goodbye to her father on the night before his execution.

      1. The information about Mary I was aware of. Most of the other is new to me. In addition to seeking Charlemagne’s crown the Nazis claimed they actually aquired the spear of destiny, the spear that pierced the sideb of Christ as he hung on the cross. Have you ever seen pictures of the structure the Nazis used or planned to use for their magical ceremonies? It was made entirely of stone and concrete. I don’t remember the exterior but the interior was round with the center of the floor sunken with steps between the two levels. Around the wall of the interior were large statues bof Teutonic knights. I don’t recall if it was purpose built by the Nazis or was built under Bismarck as a wsr memorial. It may actually still be standing. Fascinating structure.

        1. No I haven’t seen that, although I think I saw an old film of part of it. The Nazis were obsessed by the old mythology of Germanic and Teutonic Knights and the old legends of King Arthur and the old tales from the Old Testament and the Grail Legends. They wanted anything to do with the magic or old powers from those times such as the grail, the Spear of Destiny from Charlemagne and even the Ark of the Covenant. They sent agents out everywhere looking for them because they gave power to the armies of ancient times. The Ark of the Covenant !literally contained the Power of God and its absolutely true that the Nazis dug for it and they invested heavily in archaeological digs because they sought clues to the Arian race and to the power behind ancient myths. Arian people actually came from Iran and Russia and its a corruption of Indo European and the Ayrians who travelled with them, later the Huns, Mongolian people. The original Germanic people came from Russia into the North but they have nothing to do with what the Nazis were looking for. We are all descended from these people in Europe or from the Semitic people from the East or from Asia ultimately everyone from Africa. Persian and Hittite languages and people are Indo European people, and English is also, although it also has Germanic origins. That was something the Nazis were trying to disprove. They thought they had an origin which was superior to everyone else and older than other races. They believed themselves to be descended from some kind of super race. They made themselves out to be the original white race and the Teutonic Knights were worshipped because they were great warriors who took the Holy Roman Empire to its furthest eastern extent, into Russia and into Lithuania, which was pagan still then and because they were utterly ruthless. The Northern Crusades were famous for their ferocity but it was their endurance which became legendary against some of the hardest conditions during the thirteenth century they managed to survive and expand. They were builders as well, but ultimately they were forced out after 200 years. The Grail Legends originated in Germany. However, they are older in their original form than Christianity but the healing power of the Cup of Jesus from the Last Supper was said to give renewed life and make one immortal, so that was built up by the Nazis. The Ark of the Covenant made armies invincible. The Spear is the most tangible because such an object still existed. It’s actually part of the regalia of the Holy Roman Empire. The Spear was held in Austria and underground during the war and a copy is in Aachen. I have seen several documentaries on the Spear. Professor Robert Feather did research and scientific experiments on the metal and some really interesting results came out. The iron nail in the centre is Roman but it could be from anywhere between first to the third century, the golden Spear itself is 800 or so, therefore that links to Charlemagne, the leather was from the same period and the inner silver casing is from the third to the fifth century. So at some point the Spear was made for symbolic purposes as its never seen battle, its got no scars on it and the Nazis have the wrong idea. The Spear wasn’t from the time of Jesus and probably only represented the original Roman Spear which was lost centuries earlier. The iron nail is symbolic of the Crucifixion, not from the Crucifixion but it would have been the power of that symbolism which was important, not whether or not it was the real Holy Spear. The rest of the myth is powerful as well but doesn’t really fit historical accounts. No doubt Charlemagne had such an object, that makes sense as he had other holy relics but it certainly didn’t make him invincible in battle and he didn’t die when he lost it. Charlemagne was 72_years old when he died of a common cold. It was his own fault. He caught a chill while hunting in a very cold part of France in January and refused medical help. He also didn’t eat or drink for six days. He grew weak and died because he developed pneumonia. He is buried in his Cathedral in Aachan. Charlemagne did not personally lose a battle he fought in but his army was badly defeated in two famous ambushes, one made famous by the Song of Roland. Leaving Spain his rear guard was set upon by the Basque people and killed and Roland was thus killed. In Saxony an army under orders not to engage set out in the Winter into the mountains and was heavily defeated with the loss of several commanders. Every other engagement Charlemagne won. When the Saxons broke the truce this way Charlemagne demanded their leaders be handed over for judgement and those responsible. At an assembly three days
          later the Frankish Annals claimed that 4500 Saxons were handed over and executed. If you haven’t heard this before, now is the time for a sharp intake of breath. It’s so incredibly impossible that the sources are questioned. Was it a mistranslation? Other groups were deported to other parts of his Empire and their leaders were baptised a couple of years later. Only one original source mentioned it. Another is an expansion of the same source. Yes, its probably true, although as with many ancient sources written to impress an enemy, the numbers are most likely exaggerated. Ancient writers loved to add 0s to everything. Charlemagne was a warrior King. He swung between extreme acts of compassion and mercy and acts of ruthlessness. I have only one explanation for how he and other Christian rulers mitigated war with personal faith, the mindset of the Medieval Church and world allowed this reconciliation between the two in a way the 21st century cannot understand. He was also a man who brought learning and beauty, who received emissaries from Islam at his Court, who had many scholars, who was interested in science and astronomy, who united a number of Germanic people into one, who introduced laws, who was a great builder, who had scholars come and translate the texts of the Ancient World so they would not be lost and who was loved by his people. He also had several wives and numerous children. Marriage wasn’t formalised at this time either and Frankish tradition allowed the taking of up to three wives if you had slept with them. However, the Church encouraged the taking of one wife through formal contracts and religious services and Charlemagne had four Queens during his lifetime, one whom he repudiated. He also became the recognised Protector of the Church, insisted on the education of all clergy and standardised Church services and beliefs. Trade flourished under Charlemagne and at least the Vikings stayed away until 80 years after his death. He was someone else admired by the Nazis and the story of his alleged slaughter of the Saxons was built up by Himmler, not as a horrible thing, but as a punishment on a weaker race. Charlemagne didn’t see the Saxons as weak. He saw them as pagans who refused to give up their false beliefs and who were a nuisance because they kept rebelling, making peace and then rebellion again. He was constantly at war with them. Himmler built a monument to honour the Saxons but held Charlemagne as the superior warrior. Tanks and war manoeuvres were named after Charlemagne. He would have been horrified at the Nazis. Yet, his legend was part of their pre war propaganda. Aachan held a massive anti Nazis protest during the War and a newspaper which operated against Hitler. Hitler was afraid that Aachan would surrender first as the Allies came and sent in his crack troops and SS to take control which was who the Americans had to fight before the City fell. Tragically it was a terrible battle with much loss of life and damage to the beautiful City. The Rathoues of Charlemagne and the later Emperors, completed in stages from 800 to 1200 was destroyed apart from one very old Tower. It was rebuilt exactly as it had been but the old Tower is a bit bent and looks completely out of place. Inside its a magnificent building. The treasury at the Cathedral containing many wonderful paintings, a Roman sarcophagus which Charlemagne was originally buried in, the golden skull and head of Charlemagne, made by Charles iv of Bohemia, Holy Roman Emperor in the fourteenth century, containing a piece of his skull, many relics, the crown of Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy, who troubled Henry Tudor so much and a magnificent portrait of Jesus coming from the Tomb. The crown and regalia, including the replica of the “Spear of Destiny” are in the Rathoues, the original being in Austria . I can imagine the sort of odd cultist rituals the Nazis would have performed with some of these powerful objects of history and legend. I can imagine the mindset of a bunch of super lunatics who probably thought they were reincarnated from the Teutonic Knights. They would need a deep concrete bunker underground to hold them secure and for those rituals. The sad thing is, so many of the German people were sucked into the madness with them, to the horrendous and unnecessary cost of the lives of 6 million Jewish people and over one million others in concentration camps and nearly half a million more disabled people because the Nazis said they were inferior and not human. That is a legacy which archaeology and science has had to live with, one which laws thankfully now prevent the repeat off. Lets hope these kinds of mad people are never again allowed to rise to power.

  5. Hi BQ. I attempted bto look that structure up but no luck. I don’t know what it’s called and there are so many monuments in Germany from all periods. I know it was shown in a documentary I saw a few years ago.

    I had no idea Charlemagne lived to such a ripe old age. Sad that such a warrior succumbed to something so mundane.

    Thank you so much for the information on the spear of destiny. I have seen repros for sale but I had no idea that a real physical item existed. Granted, it’s not old enough but I thought bthe Nazis we’re just claiming that it was in their possession for prestige and propaganda. This is one of the reasons I so enjoy this site.

    1. Hi Michael, I don’t know if they had it as the entire regalia was hidden in a basement and never found until after the war. Glad I could help.

  6. I just attempted to log onto The Tudor Society website to download the new mag and got the message ‘ there has been a critical error on your website’. Has anyone else gotten this? All other sites are working fine. Device does not make a difference.

    1. The video didn’t work on their site last night but it worked after a couple of attempts. No message though.

      1. When I got up about 8hrs ago the site was fine but when I went in to get the mag it was down. Still is. I even had a site called isitdown.com test it. That site can’t reach it either. Perhaps something on this side of the Atlantic?

        1. Now that’s odd, it was there an hour ago on my phone but a critical error now. It’s not there at all, not even the public stuff. Maybe they are doing an update or the stormy weather is a problem. Never mind, I am sure they will be with us soon.

  7. That’s what I was thinking. I usually go in through my bookmark. Didn’t work. Googled the site and tried to go in there. Still doesn’t work. The symbol next to my bookmark is the Tudor rose in full color. At this time it’s just a gray outline as it’s dead.

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